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However, interestingly, apart from its affecting scripts and brilliant acting, the color use in this movie was ingenious and can be seen as various symbols thoroughly illustrate the theme.

The characteristics and symbolism of color can be emotionally experienced and expressed. It requires not only the content by optic but also rational perceptions and sensitive meanings. In this film, the combination of the plot and the visually color usage contributed to a more effective result in expressing the theme.

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According to the analysis of Keskar , this essay aims at develop a detail analysis of the three major colors used in the film: blue, red and black, in order to comprehend the film in a deeper and more elaborate way. Blue: Keskar indicated that blue was representing calm and peace. Here, blue was for calming, because the TV tower was a major government tool for controlling publics and calm them down.

The inspector the other important role in it, always wore blue shirts from beginning till end. Turm, , Statuta cwitatis Mutine anno reformata Parma, , Gli statuti del comune di Torino del , ed. Bellabarba, 'Norme e ordini processuali. Chittolmi, A. Molho and P.


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Schiera eds. The only northern city to have a law like those of Tuscany would seem to be Parma, where secondary revenge was penalized, but only if 'he [the revenge-taker] first accused him [the offender] before the city judge, and he [the offender] refused to defend himself according to the laws of the city' in other words, official prosecution took precedence; only against the contumacious was revenge by private persons sanctioned.

But while Florence was still, in the fourteenth century, giving public approval to private vengeance in this way,42 Parma apparently was not, for its law was omitted from sub- sequent statute-books, while another law set down penalties for killings pro vindicta vel sine vindicta.

The codes of law in northern cities did use the word 'vendetta' vindicta , but in the sense of official, 'public' punishment, especially execution vindicta sanguinis. Only in the fifteenth century did the official judicial apparatus in Florence 'increasingly' assume the role of 39 Statuti e ordtnamenti del comune di Udine, ed. M u i r , Mad Blood Stirring, , n.

And see Mauguin, Moeurs italiennes de la Renaissance, In Tuscany, 'private' revenge still had some 'public' sanction; in the north, 'public' power seems to have fully gathered up into its own authority the victim's 'private' desire for revenge. Northern Italian cities, under despotic rule, did not create a special category of vendetta crimes — some tolerated, some penalized more heavily — either because the problem of revenge was not serious for them, or because they were able to deal with it as simple crime, applying the ordinary procedures and penalties for murder or assault.

Suggestive here is the matter- of-fact way one northern judge in the late fifteenth century reported on a case: it was vendetta, and the podestd was pro- ceeding. The attitude of despots and their governments seems to be summarized in Francesco Sforza's repeated injunction that he did not want people taking justice into their own hands. For parts of early modern Liguria, Osvaldo Raggio has constructed a complex social analysis of feuding that explains it in terms of family structures, access to natural resources, trade patterns, factions in local towns, major political conflict in nearby Genoa and the presence of large numbers of bandits.

An examination of a small group of chronicles across a broad period reveals how contemporary chroniclers wrote of vendetta and 46 Zorzi, 'Judicial System in Florence', Archivio di Stato, Modena, Archivio segreto estense, R e t t o n dello stato, Modena, busta 2d 48 ' W e do not want anyone to take the law into his o w n hands' N o y n o n vohmo che persona veruna se facia raxone da p e r se stessa : F.

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Fossati, ' N u o v e spigolature d'archivio', Archivio stonco lombardo, 8th ser , vii , In surveying these authors' references to vendetta, a major problem has to be resolved: how to disentangle differences in chronicle type from differences in social mores. For the kinds of historical writing that we find in republican Tuscany — civic and familial — are unlike those of northern, seigneurial Italy, where chronicles came to focus more on the individual prince, his dyn- asty and their martial gesta. A reading of both types of chronicle would, at first glance, suggest merely that family chronicles por- tray vendetta as a family affair, martial chronicles as a martial affair.

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However, these differences in chronicle type can be seen themselves as part of the social differences between republican and despotic cities: in the former, families and factions remained major foci around which historical memories were built; in the latter, despotic rule sought to silence factional feuds and their memories of past injuries, allowing vendetta to survive only in the prince's wars.

Authors both religious and secular were led by well-known biblical texts to see misfortune as divine vengeance: 'Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord' Rom. Porta, 3 vols. Parma, ; La cromca domestica di Messer Donato Velluti, ed. Barbi Rerum itahcarum scnptores, 2nd edn, xi, pt 5, Citta di Castello, ; Gatari, Cronaca carrarese, ed. Medm and Tolomei, Annales estenses Jacobi de Delayto, ed. Muraton Rerum itahcarum scnptores, 25 vols. In Salimbene's late thirteenth-century chronicle, most revenge relates to the treatment of war captives, though invasions and defeats inspired desire for revenge, and canny commanders might even inflict injuries on themselves in order to arouse the vindictive spirits of their men.

Desire for revenge also spurred the defeated on to new battles and campaigns.

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Thus, the Florentine Guelfs made 'a great killing' of their enemies in , taking no prisoners, 'in revenge for their parenti and amia killed at Montaperti' viii. When the Pisans attacked the Genoese fleet in its harbour in revenge for Genoese seizure of Pisan ships, Genoa loftily replied that this was not honourable revenge, as it had been achieved in port, rather than in open battle viii. Vendetta was also used to refer to retaliations by military commanders for what might be seen as infractions of the honourable code of warfare: in Ghirardacci's chronicle of Bologna, Astorre Manfredi avenged his ransoming by Niccolo Gambacorta by stealthily coming to Bologna and 51 Cf.

Banco, 'Mih vindictam', who fails to catch this reference. Villani, XI, ', La cultura, xvii , Pertz et ah, 6, , , , Bonardi, 79, In this way, ven- detta merged with warfare. One Ferrarese diarist hardly uses the word at all. Vendetta, for them, may arise from contravention of the laws of war by a captor of noble prisoners by beheading them, or taking their horses and weapons ,61 from maltreatment in detention,62 or from detention itself contrary to promises made thus, Francesco II da Carrara, tricked and held in Milan by Giangaleazzo Visconti, contemplated how to accomplish a revenge killing.

The avenging of injuries justified the opening of hostilities, so vendetta supported just war. The rush of anger such revenge released was thus positively channelled into feats of arms. Sorbelli, 71 N o t e that h e w a s prosecuted and sentenced b y the podestd of Bologna for this killing Archivio di Stato, Bologna, C o m u n e , Curia del podesta, Inquisizioni, busta , r e g 1, fo 9 ss Ghirardacci, Histona di Bologna, ed. Sorbelli, 38, 8 8. Ghinassi, 'Vendetta memorabile dei Naldi contro l Carroll sequiti in val d'Amone nel ', Am e memone delta deputazione di stona patna per la Romagna, IV G Pardi Rerum italicarum scriptores, 2nd edn, xxiv, pt 7, Bologna, , 95 61 Gatari, Cronaca carrarese, ed Medin and Tolomei, , Vendetta is therefore found in conflicts between many social groups — indi- viduals, armies, cities — and not just between families.

Kinship was only one context. The chronicles make clear that vendetta was seen predominantly as a feature of warfare, as an affair of soldiers, both as individuals and as groups. It was not only chroniclers who perceived the potential of warfare to generate revenge. The laws of war did not give captors unrestricted rights over their prisoners: they could imprison and ransom them, but not injure them physically or threaten them with death. At least one military manual advised that the defeated be treated magnanimously and be given no cause to fear that vendetta would be taken on them.

On the other hand, vendetta does clearly stand out in all the sources as ven- geance for specific injury: vendetta is an event or a response to an event, not a state of continuous animosity. Though many 67 Gatari, Cronaca carrarese, ed. Alvan Pelagu de planctu ecclesie, u. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages Oxford, , Peters, 'Foreword', in J.

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Sawyer, 'Bloodfeud in Fact and Fiction', Raggio translates immicuia as faida and hardly ever uses vendetta Raggio, Faide e parentele, 10, , , , As we shall see later, a useful purpose is served in retaining this contemporary distinction, as it also helps to explain how memory of injury was preserved. Sometimes warfare is entwined with a second prominent con- text for vendetta: gender, and the outrage of female sexual honour.


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This is clear in Rolandino's account of the great wars in north-east Italy in the first half of the thirteenth century. Two notable acts of vendetta open and close this chronicle. The spark that lit the fire of hatred and warfare for two generations lay in a marriage dispute between two of the great families of the region, the da Romano and the Camposampiero.

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The girl in question was a wealthy heiress from the Paduan countryside, first promised in marriage to Gerardo da Camposampiero, then deviously pro- cured by Ezzelino da Romano as wife for his son. The Camposampiero could not forget this trick of Ezzelino's, and Gerardo, visiting the girl on a trip to her Paduan estates, had his way with her: 'And here is the cause of the war'.

We should note, of course, that Rolandino was writing long after this supposed event, after the destruction of the da Romano family by a papal crusade in the s. That destruction too was marked by vendetta, though here the treatment is rather different, with a private revenge being censured by the chronicler, and public, divine vengeance being stressed. Ezzelino was cap- tured on military campaign and, surrounded and disarmed by his captors, he was struck several times across the head by a man who claimed to be avenging his brother, whom Ezzelino had punished by amputating a foot.

This avenger, comments Rolandino, deserved no praise but rather disgrace, for it was a crime to attack or wound a captive, whether a nobleman or not. Rolandino, of course, dele- gitimizes personal revenge in this explicit fashion, so that vindicta can be more clearly and properly claimed for God and the church.

For him, the destruction of the da Romano was to be considered God's vengeance for their tyranny: the crusaders are presented 73 Rolandim patavini cromca, ed.

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Bonardi, Those roles fall into two types. First comes male aggression in defence of womenfolk. Just as the count of Caserta crucially weakened Neapolitan defences against the invasion of Charles d'Anjou out of a desire for revenge against the king of Naples who had raped his wife viii. To place outrages against women in the explanatory background to revolts, inva- sions and conquests was to appeal to the legitimating power of chivalric values.