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In the dominant seamless image of the distributed communications system, messy conjunctions become invisible.

Cross-Cultural Management

It is the actual constituted connections, rather than how these take place, that come to the fore. Munster argues that the force of conjunction is a powerful event of rupture, diagrammatic networked experience that must be re-cognised. GWEI produces an aesthesia of the algorithm, drawing on its relational variability, where click-through value is generated by the artistic and cultural networks of people who connect to the project. Values are constrained and enabled by the algorithms of the database.

The fundamental generator of the structure of the relational database is the recursive generation of relations: a relation of relations.

Inner Transition | Connection with ourselves, others and the natural world

Data becoming databased ontogenetically generates a recursive networking. A criticism that could be made here is that the relational database model is merely one instantiation, and a historically contingent one at that, of the wider phenomena of the database management system. Google itself has recently developed some of the so-called flat or NoSQL databases.

Systems such as Big Table, for instance, are specifically designed to work across many machines. Google has also developed processes, such as MapReduce, whose fault-tolerance, scalability in the storage and large-scale processing of data-sets have been used to power its services. Hadoop, an open source version, has been adopted and implemented in the core infrastructure of companies such as Ebay and Facebook. MapReduce signals a shift from mainframe systems to large arrays of medium powered computers. This cloud-computing model uses associative storage, and informally organised collections of tagged data, rather than fastidiously normalised relational systems.

Whilst Munster provides a detailed analysis of Google Earth, arguing that it instantiates an aesthetic rendering of the logic of Google search, it would be interesting to see a radical empiricist analysis of what might constitute data relations in terms of the specific technical arrangements, conjunctions that are in part brought about by these less relational, more associative systems. Another writer who works with James at length, Adrian Mackenzie, suggests that radical empiricism also offers a different perspective on the collective and on action.

How then, he asks, can we think about this togetherness without resorting to underlying forms of identity or agency? Mackenzie cites Jean-Luc Nancy 12 to argue that capital inexorably captures signification and meaning-making processes, leaving out only the irreducible relationality of being-with. Munster uses such a framework extensively for the analysis of technologically enabled art projects.

For Mackenzie 13 , the limitations of the applicability of James lie in how the latter rather equivocally characterises experience in terms of what he calls the inner and outer. For James, the differences between ideas inner and things outer , inner and outer, depend upon the way the experience acts upon its neighbours.

Inner and outer are part of the same surface, the same plane of conjunctive relations: any differences between them depend upon how the plane folds. Munster does indeed make use of his work but not as extensively as she might.

Cultural Diversity and Mental Health: Considerations for Policy and Practice

Simondon provides us with useful tools for analysing our contemporary technical milieu through accounting for chemical, psychic, social and technical individuations. His notion of transduction is useful for exploring conjunctions or relational incompatibilities. The refrain moves affect around, bringing about the dynamism of relations between planes of the living and the nonliving, art and technics, and temporalities.

Chapter six argues that Simondon provides a useful conception of perception as a mediating process, one that brings things together and, in such conjoining, individuates. Simondon helps her work further on the notion of networked synaesthesia, a process that traverses both the neural and the digital. Following this Simondonian thread in the book, chapter one mentions an interview with Brian Massumi. For Massumi, Simondon scrambles the causal order and in so doing links invention to an action of the future on the present.

At the moment of invention two sets of potentials click together, becoming coupled into a single continuous system. The biological exhibits potential to fold the exterior inside, and having done so, to then re-exteriorise it. While for Simondon physical matter within the crystal is inert, it still has the potential to individuate when it comes into contact with its solution: its milieu, its futurity. This also defines the leap from the chemical to the living. Being individuates into metastable systems and associated milieu, through transductive processes of asymmetrical internal resonance.

Internal and external here are not absolute, but are rather metastable, dynamic, and relative to one another. It seems that a further articulation of Simondonian conceptual vocabulary as outlined above could have drawn out some of the implicit potentials in the book. Syn-aesthetics then, argues Munster, describes the relation of the signal to its cross processing in the creation of a machine of expression.

What is important in the artistic practice of Carsten Nicolai and others, who utilise such approaches, are the transductions that occur at the human level of the relational experience of these works. For Munster, we experience not change, but changing, and following James, she argues that we do not experience the quality or quantity of a relation, but rather are aware of its ratio of difference to another state. Computational art binds the varying elements of the audiovisual and substantialises them.

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This created four types of empathy to further examine: 1 dispositional intellectual empathy; 2 dispositional empathic emotion; 3 experienced intellectual empathy; and 4 experienced empathic emotion. These four branches allowed researchers to examine empathic proclivities among individuals of different cultures. While individualism was not shown to correlate with either types of dispositional empathy, collectivism was shown to have a direct correlation with both types of dispositional empathy, possibly suggesting that by having less focus on the self, there is more capacity towards noticing the needs of others.

More so, individualism predicted experienced intellectual empathy, and collectivism predicted experienced empathic emotion. These results are congruent with the values of collectivistic and individualistic societies.


The self-centered identity and egoistic motives prevalent in individualistic cultures, perhaps acts as a hindrance in being open to fully experiencing empathy. Cultural empathy became broadly understood as concurrent understanding and acceptance of a culture different from one's own. This idea is meant to foster cultural empathy as well as engender cultural competence.

Eysenck [57] conceptualized ethnocentrism as using one's own culture to understand the rest of the world, while holding one's own values as correct. Concomitant with this barrier to intercultural empathy, Rasoal, Eklund, and Hansen [58] posit five hindrances of intercultural empathy; these include:. These five points elucidate lack of both depth and breadth as hindrances in developing and practicing intercultural empathy.

Another barrier to intercultural empathy is that there is often a power dynamic between different cultures.

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  • Bridging an oppressed culture with their upper-echelon oppressor is a goal of intercultural empathy. One approach to this barrier is to attempt to acknowledge one's personal oppression. Through this, the goal is that intercultural empathy can lend toward broader intercultural understanding across cultures and societies. Four important facets of cultural empathy are: [55]. These four aspects may be especially helpful for practicing cultural competence in a clinical setting. Given that most psychological practices were founded on the parochial ideals of Euro-American psychologists, cultural competence was not considered much of a necessity until said psychologists increasingly began seeing clients with different ethnic backgrounds.

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    Hall's cultural factors

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