In the days of Obadiah, the Edomites lived along the cliffs and mountaintops of the arid land south of the Dead Sea, all the way to the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea. There was very little in the way of arable land, so the Edomites made their living supporting and controlling the main caravan route between Egypt and Babylon that passed through their whole land. Throughout most of the history of Judah, Edom was controlled absolutely from Jerusalem as a vassal state.
Among the region's great powers, Edom was held in low regard. Obadiah said that the high elevation of their dwelling place in the mountains of Seir had gone to their head, and they had puffed themselves up in pride. The Edomites helped the Babylonians loot the city.
Obadiah, writing this prophecy around BCE, suggests the Edomites should have remembered that blood was thicker than water. You should not march through the gates of my people in the day of their disaster, nor gloat over them in their calamity in the day of their disaster, nor seize their wealth in the day of their disaster. Obadiah said in judgement God would wipe out the house of Esau forever, and not even a remnant would remain. The Edomites' land would be possessed by Egypt and they would cease to exist as a people.
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But the Day of the Lord was at hand for all nations, and someday the children of Israel would return from their exile and possess the land of Edom. The date of composition is disputed and is difficult to determine due to the lack of personal information about Obadiah, his family, and his historical milieu. The date of composition must therefore be determined based on the prophecy itself. Edom is to be destroyed due to its lack of defense for its brother nation, Israel, when it was under attack.
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There are two major historical contexts within which the Edomites could have committed such an act. The earlier period would place Obadiah as a contemporary of the prophet Elijah as reflected in 1 Kings In particular, 1 Kings reads: "As Obadiah was walking along, Elijah met him. Obadiah recognized him, bowed down to the ground, and said, 'Is it really you, my lord Elijah?
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The later date would place Obadiah as a contemporary of the prophet Jeremiah. A sixth-century date for Obadiah is a "near consensus" position among scholars. It is more likely that Obadiah and Jeremiah together were drawing on a common source presently unknown to us than Jeremiah drawing on previous writings of Obadiah as his source. This is in contrast to Amos , where Amos refers to such a remnant; however, it is stated that their possession will be given to Israel. The identity of the land of "Sepharad", mentioned only here in this verse in the Bible, Obadiah , is currently unknown.
I will plant Israel in their own land, never again to be uprooted. Like Jeremiah possibly his contemporary , he prophesies against Edom and predicts the restoration of the house of Jacob. The day of the Lord is near for all nations. As you have done, it will be done to you But on Mount Zion will be deliverance The house of David will be a fire There will be no survivors And the kingdom will be the Lord's".
The author is not named but the book may have originated perhaps in the eighth century B. Others feel it is postexilic or at least written after the destruction of Nineveh in , in part because of the theme of preaching to the Gentiles. It describes a single mission in highly compressed form and depicts the larger scope of God's purpose for Israel. Jonah is called by the Lord to go to and preach against the wicked enemy city of Nineveh, the capital of Assyria [representing the Gentiles].
But instead Jonah flees west for Tarshish [? Spain] by ship. The ship is threatened in a storm and the sailors throw him overboard. He is swallowed by a great fish where he stays for three days and nights. He offers to God a prayer of thanksgiving for his deliverance and acknowledges that "Salvation comes from the Lord.
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He goes to Nineveh where, as a result of his preaching, the people and their king repent and turn from their evil ways. Jonah is angry with God for having compassion for Israel's enemy but God answers that he must also be concerned about that great city. He prophesied sometime between and during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and of Hezekiah and was a contemporary of Isaiah.
He was from a village in Judah and was concerned about the social conditions prior to the religious reforms of Hezekiah. He predicts the downfall of Samaria and the eventual desolation of Judea. He alternates between oracles of doom and of hope.
His theme is the judgment and deliverance of God. I will make Samaria a heap of rubble For her wound is incurable; it has come to Judah. Social ills : "Woe to those who plan iniquity They covet fields and seize them.
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They defraud a man of his home, a fellowman of his inheritance. Should you not know justice, you who hate good and love evil? Her leaders judge for a bribe, her priests teach for a price, and her prophets tell fortunes for money. One who breaks open the way will go up before them Their king will pass through before them, the Lord at their head.
They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel He will stand and shepherd his flock And they will live securely, for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth.
And he will be their peace. The unknown author prophesies sometime between the fall of Thebes in and of Nineveh in , probably in the reign of Josiah and therefore a contemporary of Zephaniah and the young Jeremiah. Assyria has already destroyed the northern kingdom. It is addressed to Nineveh, prophesying its fall. Woe to the city of blood Bodies without number He was a contemporary of Jeremiah. He predicts the coming Babylonian invasion, probably writing toward the end of Josiah's reign or the beginning of Jehoiakim's.
Habakkuk struggles to comprehend the ways of God and why He seems to do nothing about the rampant wickedness, strife and oppression in Judah. Why do you make me look at injustice? Why do you tolerate wrong? Why are you silent while the wicked swallow up those more righteous than themselves?
The books, in order of their occurrence in the Christian Old Testament, are: [ citation needed ]. Baruch including the Letter of Jeremiah is not part of the Hebrew Bible.
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